Died 16 Nov 1999 at age 71 (born 30 Oct 1928).
American microbiologist, co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1978 (with American Hamilton Othanel Smith and Swiss scientist Werner Arber). The winners had been stated for their discovery and alertness of limit enzymes, which offer the “chemical knives” to reduce genes (= DNA) into described fragments. These may also then be used (1) to decide the order of genes on chromosomes, (2) to examine the chemical shape of genes and of areas of DNA that alter the characteristic of genes, and (3) to create new mixtures of genes. Thus new avenues are opened to look at the primary issues in developmental biology; and in medicine, to assist the prevention and remedy of malformations, hereditary sicknesses, and cancer.