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Anatomy of Ankle Joint
- The foot has many arches:
- Medial longitudinal arch is formed by tarsal bones and metatarsals
- Lateral longitudinal arch is not as well formed
- Slight transverse arch passing through distal tarsal bones goes from side to side
- Arches are maintained by several foot structures
- The Talus bone of the foot
- Is the keystone that keeps the integrity of arches
- Wedged between calcaneus and navicular bone.
- Also maintained by ligaments
- Large series of ligaments that tie bones together on plantar surface and dorsal surface (from flexor hallucis longus etc.)
- Intrinsic muscles of the foot
- Extrinsic foot muscles such as fibularis longus which crosses ankle and goes across plantar foot to first metatarsals which acts as “hooks” to keep arch
- Moral of the story: Bone structure, ligaments, intrinsic muscles, extrinsic muscles must be intact for arches to remain stable.
Ligaments of the Ankle joint:
- Series of ligaments from medial malleolus to bones of the foot (tarsals)
- 4 of them, named by bones they attach- called the Deltoid ligament. Is shaped like a triangle.
- Thus, major ligament of medial ankle joint is deltoid ligament.
- These are very tough ligaments.
- May have medial malleolus portion pulled off before tear the ligament.
- Calcanealfibular ligament
- from tip of the fibula to the calcaneus
- On the lateral aspect of ankle
- Greatest stress to this ligament would be on inversion movements
- Thus this ligament is commonly stretched beyond limits by misstep = sprained ankle / rolled ankle.
- On plantar surface of the foot: 2 key ligaments
- Long plantar ligament: acts to maintain arch- distributes to toes 2-5
- Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament:
- Connects calcaneus to navicular bone on plantar surface
- Supports the head of the Talus- articulates with the navicular bone.
- AKA Spring ligament – gives recoil to arches of the foot.
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