Histology and Embryology Syllabus in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe
- Subject: Histology & embryology
- Semesters: 2-3
- Tentative hours of lectures: hours
- Tentative hours of practicals: hours
- Exam: after 2 semesters
- Emphasis on the CIS syllabi: It’s wise to emphasize that this Curriculum/syllabus is tentative & the subject’s distribution or teaching hours or exams might vary in different universities and CIS.
Brief description of the course:
- The history of the development of histology. Methods of research.
- Tissue as systems of cells and their derivatives. Cells as conducting elements of a tissue. Structural components of a cell. The basic of cells vital activity.
- Embryology the person. A periodization of development. The critical periods of development.
- General Histology: Histology of epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue. Specialization of tissue in the structure of bodies. Blood, lymph, hematopoiesis.
- Systemic histology: Histology of organs & systems.
- Basics of anatomy and physiology, molecular biology, and medical genetics.
- To learn to define the structure and function of cells and their derivatives;
- To train to define the general laws of histogenesis, structures, histophysiology, and regenerations of tissue;
- To train to distinguish features of the tissue arising as a result of their specialization in various bodies;
- To form skills and skills in microscope histologic preparations and identification of tissue.
- To Know:
- The basic laws of the structural organization of cells and intercellular substance;
- The basic laws of the structural organization of tissue; the basic laws of embryonic developments of tissue;
- The histo-functional features of tissue arising as a result of their specialization in various organs.
- To be able:
- to distinguish on photo-optical a level of structure of a nucleus and cytoplasm of cells;
- to distinguish in preparations cellular and not cellular structures of tissue; to distinguish in electronic micrographs the general and special organelles of cells;
- to define tissue elements in organs.
- Skills to be developed: microscope histologic preparations; sketches of histologic preparations.
Lectures: topics & number of hours
|1.||Introduction into histology, cytology and embryology subject and tasks. The history of science.||2|
|2.||General and comparative embryology.||2|
|3.||Introduction of tissues. Epithelial tissues.||2|
|4.||Blood and lymph. Hematopoiesis.||2|
|6.||Cartilages and bony tissues.||2|
|10.||Sense organs. The eye.||2|
|11.||Sense organs. The audio-vestibular organ.||2|
|13.||Immune and hemopoietic organs||2|
|15.||Digestive system. Alimentary tract.||2|
|16.||Glands of the digestive system.||2|
|19.||Male reproductive system.||2|
|20.||Female reproductive system.||2|
Practical classes: topics & number of hours
Cytology: General structure of the cell.
|2.||Cytology: Cytoplasm structure. Cell nucleus.
Cytology: Cells reproduction.
Aging and death of the cell.
|3.||General embryology. Human embryonic development.
Germ cells. Fertilization. Cleavage. Implantation.
|4.||Gastrulation. History- and organogenesis.
Extraembryonic organs. Crucial periods of embryogenesis.
|5.||Epithelial tissues. Glandular epithelium. Glands.||6|
|6.||Blood. Lymph. Hematopoiesis.||6|
|7.||Connective tissues. Loose connective tissue. Dense connective tissue. Connective tissues with special properties.||6|
|8.||Chondroid, bony and muscular tissues.||6|
|9.||Nerve tissue. Nerve cells. Glial cells. Nerve fibers. Nerve endings.||6|
|10.||Nervous system. Spinal ganglia. Nerve. Spinal cord.||6|
|11.||Cerebellum. Hemispheres of the brain. Autonomic nervous system.||6|
|1||Nerve system. Spinal ganglia. Nerve. Spinal cord.||6|
|2||Cerebellum. Hemispheres of the brain. Autonomic nerve system.||6|
|3.||Sense organs. Visual organ. Audiovestibular organ.||6|
|5.||Immune and hematopoietic organs.||6|
|7.||Adrenal glands and diffuse endocrine system. Skin and its appendages.||6|
|8.||Digestive tube organs||6|
|9.||Large glands of the digestive system.||6|
|0.||Respiratory system. Urinary system.||6|
|11.||Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system.||6|
|12.||Menstrual cycle. Mammary glands.||6|
Interim assessments (Controls) & Exam
- Interim assessment (Chapter-wise controls) : MCQs + situational tasks & Spotter with Viva (practical)
- Final exam: Spotter with Viva
Sample Control & Exam questions
- The score ranges from 5 to 1:
- 5 is “excellent” → Otlichno
- 4 is “good” → Khorosho
- 3 is “satisfactory” → Udovletvoritel’no
- 2 is “unsatisfactory” → Neudovletvoritel’no
- Basic histology. Texts and atlases, published in Northern America, 2003, 512pp.
- Functional histology. Texts and colour atlas. Curchill Livingstone, International edition. Sidney. Toronto. 2000.413pp.
- Text book of histology third edition, 1997. Published by Caravan Book Center. 317pp.
- Laid Hussain Siddiqui. Medical histology 4th edition, 1999. Multan Cantt 427pp.
- Traditional Lecture in Histology & embryology (Russian language):
- Traditional Class in Histology & embryology (Russian language):