Pathophysiology syllabus in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe
- Pathology is taught in Russia, other CIS & Eastern Europe in the traditional way where the syllabus is divided into 2 subjects that are usually taught parallelly in the 3rd academic year:
- Anatomic pathology/Pathanatomy: Focuses on the structural aspect of the pathology including histopathology (Changes in the tissues, organs, systems & their clinical consequences)
- Pathophysiology: Focuses on the dynamic aspect of the pathology (Etiology, pathogenesis, MOD of the clinical/lab manifestations, consequences & pathophysiological basis of the treatment)
FAQs about Pathophysiology in Russia vs India
- When do they teach Pathophysiology in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Usually taught in the 3rd academic year
- Which countries teach Anatomic pathology & Pathophysiology separately? Many European countries especially Eastern Europe, All CIS, South American countries & China.
- What is taught under Pathophysiology in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? especially the dynamic aspect of the pathology (Etiology, pathogenesis, MOD of the clinical/lab manifestations, consequences & pathophysiological basis of the treatment)
- Do they teach Anatomic pathology & Pathophysiology separately in India? No, they teach both under a single subject “Pathology”
- When do they teach Pathology in India? Pathology is taught in 2nd MBBS
- Is there a drastic difference between the depth of content taught/tested in India & Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Yes, the depth of the contents taught in India is more than in Russia, especially for the English medium.
Anatomic Pathophysiology syllabus
- Subject: Pathophysiology
- Semesters: 5-6
- Tentative hours of lectures: hours
- Tentative hours of practicals: 0 hours
- Exam: after 2 semesters
- Emphasis on the CIS syllabi: It’s wise to emphasize that this Curriculum/syllabus is tentative & the subject’s distribution or teaching hours or exams might vary in different universities and CIS.
Brief description of the course
- Pathophysiology is a science studying dynamics of the diseases.
- The purpose of pathophysiology is to study the general laws of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, and principles of therapy and preventive maintenance of illnesses (The primary goal of pathophysiology is to teach students skills to understand mechanisms of development of illnesses and recovery)
- Pathophysiology is the basic theoretical experimental discipline that is the base for clinical practice.
- Molecular biology, and medicine genetic, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology.
- Introduction of intensive forms and education of future experts;
- Creation of conditions for independent work of students, development of their creative abilities.
- Inculcation to students of skills of the scientific analysis and various research skills.
- As a result of studying pathological physiology:
- Practical (seminar, laboratory) lesson:
- The active method of studying: studying, based on Team-based learning (TBL), clinical-based learning (CBL), Problem based learning (PBL), Project-based learning (PrBL), discussion, presentation, interdisciplinary and inter-professional studying;
- Traditional methods: situational tasks, work in pairs, work with books, preparation of reports, and solution of clinical tasks, discuss topic of SIW, deep studying of questions about a practical lesson, preparation of reports, consultation with the teacher on all arising questions, solving questions, prepare protocol on academic work.
- Individual works:
- Active method of studying: Project-based learning (PrBL), presentation;
- Traditional method: work with books, preparation of reports, and solution of clinical tasks, discuss the topic of SIW, work with computer models and programs, work with electronic material and internet.
Lectures: topics, Interim assessments (Controls) & number of hours
|1. Introduction, object, and method of pathophysiology.||2|
|2. General study of disease.||2|
|3. General etiology||2|
|4. Pathogenic action of factors of surroundings medium on human organism.||2|
|5. General pathogenesis||2|
|6. Role of reactivity of organism in pathology.||2|
|7. Role of hereditary in pathology.||2|
|8. Allergy, common allergic disease.||2|
|9. Allergy. Study of the experimental method of allergic reaction formation.||2|
|10. General and local reaction on alteration||2|
|12. Peripheral blood circulation and microcirculation disorders.||2|
|13. Inflammation. Types of inflammation.||2|
|14. Inflammation: mechanism of inflammation in the experiment.||2|
|16. Tumor growth||2|
|19. Disorders of water-electrolyte balance: dishydria||2|
|20. Disorders of water-electrolyte balance: edema, pathogenic factors.||2|
|21. Disorders of acid-base conditions: acidosis, alkalosis.||2|
|22. Disorders of acid-base conditions: compensatory mechanisms at disturb acid base balance||2|
|23. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, types, causes and mechanisms of development||2|
|24. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: typical forms of disturb carbohydrate metabolism.||2|
|25. Disorders of lipid metabolism.||2|
|26. Disorders of protein metabolism. Starvation.||2|
|28. Hemopoietic system: Disturb physiological functions at anemic syndrome. Pathophysiological aspects of hematopoiesis and cellular composition of peripheral blood at different types of leucosis. Disturb hemostasis.||6|
|29. Cardiovascular system: Atherosclerosis: etiological factors, pathogenesis. Damage of heart valves, causes, and mechanism of development. Features in children. Pathophysiology of coronary insufficiency. Pathophysiology of acute and chronic heart failure. Features in children.||9|
|30. Respiratory system: Types of external respiratory insufficiency. Alveolar hypo-hyperventilation. Disorders of the central mechanisms of regulation of respiration. Features of respiratory disorders in newborns. Pathogenetic mechanisms of decrease diffusion property of alveolar-capillary membrane. Hypertension of small blood circulation. Features at children.||9|
|31. Digestive system: General etiology and pathogenesis of the disorders of the digestive system. Disturbances of the functions of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Features in children. Disorders of the secretory functions of pancreatic gland. Features in children. Pathophysiology of the liver. Features in children.||9|
|32. Urinogenital system: Pathophysiological characteristics of inflammatory diseases of urinary system. Obstructive uropathy33. Pathophysiological characteristics of separate forms of pathology of kidneys (acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome)34. Pathophysiology of chronic renal failure. Features of development of renal failure in children||9|
|35. Endocrine system; Basic types of endocrine disorders. Pathophysiological mechanisms of hypo- and hyperglycemia, hypo and Hyperthyreosis, hypo and hypercorticism.||3|
|36. Locomotor system, the skin and the appendages of the skin: Pathophysiology of inflammatory and dystrophic changes in the locomotor system.||3|
|37. Disorders of higher nervous activity. Pathogenic features of damage of nervous system in newborns. Neurogenic disorders of movements. Neurogenic disorders of trophicity.||6|
Interim assessments (Controls) & Exam
- Interim assessment (Chapter-wise controls) : MCQs + situational tasks & Viva
- Final exam: Viva, situational tasks +/- MCQs
How to study anatomy to score 5+ with the least effort?
Sample Control & Exam questions
Grab the MCQs, Viva & Tasks with answers to score 5+ ↓
- The score ranges from 5 to 1:
- 5 is “excellent” → Otlichno
- 4 is “good” → Khorosho
- 3 is “satisfactory” → Udovletvoritel’no
- 2 is “unsatisfactory” → Neudovletvoritel’no
Join the “Otlichnik club” to get your “Red Diploma”↓
- А.И. Воложин, Г.В. Порядин. Патофизиология: Учеб.для вузов: В 3-х т М.: Академия.-(Высшее профессиональное образование). Т. 1-3.-2006.– 271.
- Н.Н. Зайко, Ю.В. Быця. Патологическая физиология. Учеб.для студ. мед. ин-тов. 4-е изд.-М.: МЕДпресс-информ, 2007.-
- Литвицкий П.Ф. Патофизиология: Учеб.для мед. вузов/ П.Ф. Литвийкий – 4-е изд. – испр. и доп.-М.: ГЭОТАР- МЕД, 2009. – 807.
- Патофизиология: учебник в 2-х т./под ред. В.В.Новицкого, Е.Д.Гольдберга, О.И.Уразовой. – 4-е изд. перераб. и доп. – М.:ГЭОТАР-Медиа Т.1. – 2009.-630,629.
- Traditional Lecture in Physiology (Russian Language):