Physiology syllabus in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe
- Subject: Human Physiology AKA Normal physiology
- Semesters: 2-3
- Tentative hours of lectures: 36 hours
- Tentative hours of practicals: 72 hours
- Exam: after 2 semesters
- Emphasis on the CIS syllabi: It’s wise to emphasize that this Curriculum/syllabus is tentative & the subject’s distribution or teaching hours or exams might vary in different universities and CIS.
Brief description of the course
- Formation of student’s knowledge about the basic laws of functioning of the organism of the healthy man and mechanisms of regulation of physiological systems.
- General physiology/ elementary physiological processes – which study general properties of an alive matter, processes of excitation and braking, functional features of excitable structures, muscles, secretion.
- Neurohumoral regulation of physiological functions – study general physiology CNS, functions of neuron, a feature of the distribution of excitation and braking in CNS, physiology of independent nervous system, humoral regulation of physiological functions.
- The bases of ability to live – will be considered power and basic exchange, physiological bases of a feed, thermal balance, regulation of temperature of a body.
- The system mechanisms of behavior – will be investigated general principles of organization of behavior, labor activity of the man, physiology of analyzers, physiology of memory, emotions, mental activity, physiology of dream, adaptation, biological rhythms.
- To generate system knowledge about the ability of the whole organism of the man to live in interrelation with an environment and mechanisms of regulation of physiological systems of an organism;
- To impart to the students physiological and clinical thinking;
- To acquaint with experience of a statement of research experiment;
- To learn to judgment and interpretation of the data, received in an experiment, and explanation of the observable facts, phenomena, and their causally -investigation mutual relation;
- To train to methods of an estimation of a functional condition of the organism and its systems;
- To train to principles of work with the clinicodiagnostic equipment.
- Lectures: survey, problematic.
- Practice: performance of practical works on a theme (experimental researches on animals, development of clinic-physiological techniques), work with the equipment, tables, atlases, decision of situation tasks, the performance of the test tasks, work in small groups, team-based learning (TBL), discussion of results of research, registration of the protocols.
- Students’ individual work: work with the literature, preparation of presentations, and thematic abstracts.
Lectures: topics & number of hours
|Topic||Duration in hours|
|1. General characteristic of physiology as a science||1|
|2. Basic principles of forming and regulation of physiological functions||1|
|4. Lows of irritation of excitable tissues||1|
|5. Membrane potential||1|
|6. Action potential||1|
|7. Physiology of skeletal and smooth muscles||1|
|8. Muscles contraction||1|
|9. Reception. System organization of conducting tracts.||1|
|10. Synaptic transmission.||1|
|11. General physiology of the central nervous system. Functions of neurons.||1|
|12. Mechanisms of excitation and inhibition of nervous cells||1|
|13. Features of distribution of excitation in CNS||1|
|14. The basic principles of coordination activity CNS||1|
|15. Physiology of vegetative nervous system||1|
|16. Continuous – Physiology of vegetative nervous system||1|
|17. General properties and functions of hormones||1|
|18. Hormonal regulation of physiological functions||1|
|19. Metabolism and energy exchange||1|
|20. Energy exchange.||1|
|21. Thermoregulation. Regulation of isotherm. Hypothermia. Hyperthermia||1|
|22. Labor activity of the man||1|
|23. Physiology of analyzers. General principles of a structure of sensory systems.||1|
|24. Physiology of analyzers. Mechanisms of processing of the information||1|
|25. Physiology of a pain||1|
|27. General principles of organization of28. behavior||1|
|29. The inherent and acquired behavior.||1|
|30. Inhibition of the conditioned activity||1|
|31. Physiology of sleep||1|
|32. Types of HNA||1|
|33. The doctrine by I.P.Pavlov about the first and second signaling systems”||1|
|36. Mental activity of the man. Consciousness.||1|
|37. Mental activity of the man.
38. Neurophysiologic basis of mental activity.
Practical classes: topics & number of hours
|Topic||Duration in hours|
|1. Methods of physiological researches. The methods of irritation of excitable tissues.||3|
|2. Physiology of excitable tissues. Parameters of excitation.||3|
|3. Bioelectric phenomena. Up-to-date concepts about the origin of the biopotential.||3|
|4. Result lesson on section “General physiology ”.||3|
|5. Physiological properties of muscles. The types of muscle contractions.||3|
|6. The laws of conduction of excitation along with the nerve fiber. Parabiosis. Physiological properties of synapses.||3|
|7. Result lesson on section “Physiological processes”.||3|
|8. Features of propagation of excitation in the CNS.||3|
|9. The processes of inhibition in the CNS.||3|
|10. General character of the endocrine glands. Basic properties and functions of hormones.||3|
|11. Result lesson on section “Neurogumoral regulation of physiological functions”.||3|
|12. Energy exchange. Nutrition.||3|
|13. Thermal balance and regulation of temperature of a body.||3|
|14. Result lesson on section “Bases of vital activity”.||3|
|15. The visual analyzer. Methods of research of the visual analyzer.||3|
|16. The gustatory analyzer. The olfactory analyzer.||3|
|17. The auditory analyzer. The vestibular analyzer.||3|
|18. The skin analyzer.||3|
|19. Result lesson on section “Analyzers”.||3|
|20. Conditioned – the reflex activity of the organism. Neurophysiologic mechanisms of formation of conditional reflexes.||3|
|21. Methods of research HNA. Types of HNA.||3|
|22. Methods of research of mental functions of the man. Memory.||3|
|23. Methods of research of mental functions of the man. Emotions.||3|
|24. Result lesson on section “system mechanisms of behavior”||3|
Interim assessments (Controls) & Exam
- Interim assessment (Chapter-wise controls) : MCQs + situational tasks & Viva
- Final exam: Viva, situational tasks +/- MCQs
Sample Control & Exam questions
- The score ranges from 5 to 1:
- 5 is “excellent” → Otlichno
- 4 is “good” → Khorosho
- 3 is “satisfactory” → Udovletvoritel’no
- 2 is “unsatisfactory” → Neudovletvoritel’no
- GuytonJ.E.Hall.Medical Physiology. by W.B.Saunders company, 2003.-1064p.
- William F.Ganong.Review of medical physiology. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 2003.-912p.
- Normal physiology: textbook / Orlov R.S., Nozdrachev A.D. – 2nd ed., Revised. and add. 2010 .– 832 p
- A.J.Vander. Human physiology: the mechanisms of body function/New York: Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company,1990/-724p.
- Traditional Lecture in Physiology (Russian Language):
- Class session in Physiology (Russian Language):