DaVinci medical academy

No 55/2, New Avadi Road, Alagappa Nagar, Kilpauk. Chennai

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  1. Candidates should be able to recognize medical emergencies from history, examination and investigations; deal effectively with such emergencies at different levels (including resuscitation and management); and demonstrate detailed knowledge on how to perform life saving procedures.

  They should have clinical experience  and  be able to describe the management of the     following:- 

  • Acute chest pain, acute pulmonary oedema, congestive cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, hypertensive encephalopathy, massive pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade.
  • Acute respiratory failure, acute severe asthma, tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary collapse, acute laryngeal obstruction, epistaxis.
  • Upper gastro-intestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, acute pancreatitis, typhoid perforation, severe diarrhoea and dehydration, electrolyte imbalance.
  • Unconsciousness, status epilepticus, meningitis, viral encephalitis, stroke, subarchnoid haemorrhage, intracranial hypertension, bulbar paralysis, respiratory muscle paralysis, myasthenia gravis, Guillain Barre syndrome,
  • Acute renal failure.
  • Acute disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute massive intravascular haemolysis.
  • hypothermia, heat stroke, electric shock, near drowning,
  • Dengue haemorrhagic fever
  • Diabetic keto-acidosis, hypoglycaemic coma, thyrotoxic crisis, myxoedema coma, acute adrenal Insufficiency, acute hypopituitarism, tetany, acute hypercalcaemia, acute water intoxication.
  • Acute poisoning
  • Acute Organic Psychoses
  • Shock
  • Complicated Falciparum malaria
  • Snake Bite,
  • Rabies

 

  1. Candidates should be able to describe the management of common paediatric emergencies such as :-
  • stridor, ƒ
  • anaphylaxis, ƒ
  • sever dehydration ƒ
  • hypovolaemic shock ƒ
  • dengue shock syndrome ƒ
  • cardiac failure ƒ
  • status epilepticus ƒ
  • status asthma- and ƒ
  • diabetic ketoacidosis.

Pathology

With regard to general pathology, the candidate  should be able to:-

  • identify causative agents and predisposing factors of disease. This would include including pathogenic organisms, physical and chemical agents, cigarette smoking, alcohol, nutritional, metabolic, immune-related, environmental, genetic and age-related factors.
  • describe the different mechanisms through which the above factors produce disease.

This would include

  • Reversible and irreversible cellular injury – fatty change, necrosis, apoptosis, infarction and gangrene

 

  • Acute and Chronic inflammation –cellular and vascular response, chemical mediators, pathogenesis and cells in chronic granulomatous and immune-mediated inflammation, with special emphasis on Tuberculosis, systemic effects of inflammation and complications and sequelae of inflammation

 

  • Abnormalities of the blood and vascular system – hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism. oedema and chronic venous congestion

 

  • Adaptive response of tissue to injury – hypertrophy, hyperplasia, hypoplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia and in-situ carcinoma

 

  • Healing of tissue following injury – factors which influence healing by resolution, regeneration and repair, primary and secondary wound healing, factors that impair healing, and fracture healing

 

  • Neoplasia – principles of nomenclature, differences between benign and malignant tumours, spread of tumours, clinical effects of tumours, paraneoplastic syndromes, grading and staging, laboratory diagnosis of tumours and the genetic basis of malignancy including oncogenesis and cancer-related genes
  • Other parenchymal and interstitial responses and biochemical abnormalities – pigmentation, calcification, amyloidosis, and acidbase balance
  • describe the alterations in structure and function of tissues and organs in the body at a macroscopic level as a result of the above mechanisms and thus be able to explain the different clinical symptoms and signs that arise.
  • link the basic mechanisms of Pathology learnt at a foundation level to specific diseases and disease entities of the cardiovascular. respiratory, gastro-intestinal, genitor-urinary, neurological, musculo-skeletal and lympho-proliferative systems in order to explain their pathogenesis, clinical features, complications and effects.
  • select the appropriate investigations and specimens required to identify the pathogenic mechanism and the aetiological agents and be able to describe aware of accepted methods of specimen handling and transport
  1. With regard to haematology, the candidate should be able to :-
  • Define anaemia and be aware of the normal ranges of Haemoglobin for newborns, infants, adult males and females (pregnant and non-pregnant)
  • Outline the main cause, pathogenesis and clinical effects of anaemia and be able to list relevant investigations.
  • State principles of treatment and outline measures used in their prevention.
  • Describe different categories of anaemia such as
  • iron, folate and B12 deficiency anaemias
  • inherited and acquired haemolytic anaemias, including immune and non-immune types
  • anaemia of chronic disease
  1. With regard to haemato-oncology the candidate should be able to describe the pathology of :-
  • Acute leukaemia
  • Myeloproliferative disorders
  • Lymphoproliferative disorders
  • Multiple Myeloma

 

  1. With regard to bone marrow failure syndromes, the candidate should be able to describe:-
  • Aplastic anaemias
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes

 

  1. With regard to normal haemostasis and the investigation and management of bleeding disorders, the candidate should be able to describe :
  • coagulopathies,
  • Platelet function disorders and
  • thrombocytopaenias
  • the aetiology, investigation and management of thrombophilia

 

 

  1. With regard to blood transfusion the candidate should :-
  • Have performed or observed blood grouping, cross matching,
  • preparation and/or use of blood components,
  • be able to describe haemolytic disease of the new born,
  • be able to describe the investigate and management of hazards of blood ,
  • transfusion and their prevention.

 

  1. Recommended Reading for Pathology :
  • Basic Pathology by Stanley L Robbins, 7th Edition
  • Consise Pathology by Parakrama Chandrasoma . 3rd Edition
  • Pathalogical basis of Disease by Stanley L Robbins.
  • Essential Haematology by Hoffbrand and Petit (latest Edition)
  • Practical Haematology by Dacie, Lewis and Bain (latest Edition)

 

 

 

 

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