- uman Anatomy AKA Normal anatomy is taught in Russia, other CIS & Eastern Europe in the traditional way where the syllabus is divided into Systemic Anatomy to be taught in the 1st & 2nd academic years however Regional Anatomy is taught in the 3rd year with operative surgery & clinico-surgical applications.
- Traditional teaching methodology of anatomy in Russia, other CIS & Eastern Europe is different from the English way of teaching anatomy however all the components of teaching are included within the syllabus of both systemic & regional anatomy distributed in different academic years.
- The Russian, other CIS & Eastern European system believes that basics of Anatomy should be taught as systemic anatomy in the first year then once students are exposed to pathology & clinical subjects in 2nd to 3rd years, regional anatomy with clinico-surgical applications in order to increase the depth of understanding & implications.
FAQs about Anatomy in Russia vs India
- Why do Russian/CIS medical schools emphasize so much on Anatomy? Because Germans & Russians were the pioneers in Anatomy & developed traditional schools of Anatomy earlier than many other countries, therefore, the Russian medical schools consider Anatomy to be their pride.
- What is systemic anatomy? Systemic anatomy focuses on the anatomy of different organ systems from basic supporting structures bones (osteology) to the advanced nervous system.
- When do they teach systemic anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? during the first 3 semesters.
- Which countries teach systemic anatomy currently? Many European countries especially Eastern Europe, All CIS, South American countries & China.
- What is taught under systemic Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Anatomy is taught system by system with relevant Embryology (General embryology is covered with Histology) + Ontogenesis + Anthropology & Radioanatomy.
- Do they teach systemic anatomy in India? No, they teach only regional anatomy.
- Is Anatomy taught as a separate subject from Histology & embryology in India? No, Anatomy is taught as a single subject including histology, embryology & genetics during the first professional year in India however systemic anatomy is taught as a separate subject from histology, embryology & genetics.
- Does the Russian/CIS curriculum have regional Anatomy? Yes, it’s called Topographic anatomy (Topography=distribution of structures in the region) taught together with Operative surgery.
- When do they teach Regional Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? during the 3rd-4th years in Russia.
- What are the differences in the teaching methodology of Anatomy in Russia/CIS vs India?
- India: Follows the most effective & traditional way of teaching Anatomy through live “dissection” however prosected models are available for learning (students should complete full-body dissection by the end of the Anatomy course).
- Russia: Prosected or Plastinated cadavers are used for initial teaching due to the relative scarcity of the cadavers however partial dissection sessions are conducted intermittently (Some universities do not conduct the dissections though).
- What is the most common misconception about Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Many people believe that only systemic anatomy is taught in Russia & there is no regional anatomy or dissections.
- Why do many people have such a misconception?
- Many people even Medicos in India are unaware of the Russia, Other CIS & Eastern European curricula & syllabi.
- Consultants who recruit students to Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe misguide people by saying there is no regional anatomy in Russia.
- Is there a drastic difference between the depth of content taught/tested in India & Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Yes, the depth of the contents taught in India is more than in Russia, especially for the English medium.
Systemic Anatomy syllabus
- Subject: Human Anatomy AKA Normal anatomy
- Semesters: 1-3
- Tentative hours of lectures: 50 hours
- Tentative hours of practicals: 200 hours
- Exam: after 3 semesters
- Important points to be emphasized: There are differences in the distribution or sequence of the chapters/topics, teaching hours, credits, exams & reference textbooks between the universities
Brief description of the course
- Human anatomy is a science about forms and structure, origin, and development of the human body.
- Anatomy is concerned with a systematic description of shape, structure, location, and topographic relations of parts and organs of the body, bearing in mind age, sexual and individual peculiarities.
- Anatomy is widely used in the data of embryology, comparative anatomy, anthropology, which finds the influence of environmental and social factors, labor, and sport on the structure of the human body. Anatomy is a discipline, forming the base of medical knowledge.
- To acquire the base of knowledge about structure and topography of organs and organ systems for the development of clinical thought;
- To acquire the base of knowledge about the interrelation of the structure and function of human organs and a whole organism with changing environmental conditions, labor, and social factors;
- To be able to demonstrate the location and projection of organs in the cadaver & on the human body surfaces.
- To respect and carefully protect the organs & cadaver
- Practice lessons: laboratory work, colloquium, seminars, work with anatomical preparations, models and plastic charts, tests, work with small groups, discussion, in pair, solving problems, presentation, keys study, analyses of cases, modeling of situations
- Students’ individual work: work with fundamental & supplementary references, electronic sources of information; the individual decision of tests, preparing of synopses; consultation with the teacher on topics for individual study.
Lectures: Topics & Number of Hours
|1.||The history of human anatomy & Introduction to anthropology.||2|
|2.||Introduction to human anatomy & General osteology.||2|
|6.||Systemic myology & Topography||4|
|7.||Introduction in splanchnology & Digestive system.||4|
|9.||Excretory system & Genital system||4|
|13.||Introduction in neurology||2|
|14.||CNS: Spinal cord||2|
|15.||CNS: Functional anatomy of the brain||4|
|16.||Conduction pathways of the spinal cord and cerebrum.||2|
|17.||Spinal and cranial nerves||2|
|19.||Vegetative nervous system Vegetative innervations of organs||6|
Practical Classes: Topics & Number of Hours
|1.||The subject of human anatomy. Anatomical terminology. Axes and planes used in anatomy. The skeleton and its parts. The vertebral column. The structure of a thoracic vertebra.||2|
|2.||The structure of cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum and coccyx.||2|
|3.||Ribs, the sternum. The clavicle, the scapula.||2|
|4.||Bones of the upper extremity.||2|
|5.||The hip bone and femur. The patella.||2|
|6.||Bones of the leg and foot.||2|
|7.||The skeleton of the head. The cerebral and facial skull. Bones of the cranial skull: frontal, sphenoid, occipital.||2|
|8.||The temporal and parietal bones.||2|
|9.||Ethmoid bone. Bones of the facial skull: upper jaw, palatine bone, vomer, cheekbone, inferior nasal concha, nasal bone, lacrimal bone, lower jaw, hyoid bone.||2|
|10.||The skull as a whole. The skullcap, the base of the skull. Temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae.||2|
|11.||The orbit, nasal cavity. Age and sex features of the skull.||2|
|12.||Types of joints. Connections of the skull bones. The temporomandibular joint. Roentgen anatomy of the skull.||2|
|13.||Connections between vertebrae. The connection between the skull and the vertebral column.||2|
|14.||The vertebral column in general. Connections of ribs. Thoracic cage in general. Roentgen anatomy.||2|
|15.||Connections of shoulder girdle bones. The shoulder joint.||2|
|16.||The elbow joint. Connection of bones of the forearm and hand. The radiocarpal joint. Roentgen anatomy.|
|17.||Connections of the pelvic girdle bones. The pelvis in general. The iliofemoral joint.||2|
|18.||The knee joint. Connections of the bones of the leg.||2|
|19.||The ankle joint. Connections of the foot. The foot as a whole. Roentgen anatomy.||2|
|20.||Final classes on “Osteology” and “Arthrology”.|
|21.||The active part of the locomotor apparatus. Muscles and fasciae of the back.||2|
|22.||Muscles and fasciae of the chest. Diaphragm.||2|
|23.||Muscles and fasciae of the abdomen. The white line of the abdomen. The inguinal canal. Weak places of the abdominal wall as an anatomical background for hernias development.||2|
|24.||Muscles and fasciae of the neck. Topography of the neck.||2|
|25.||Muscles and fasciae of the head.||2|
|26.||Muscles and fasciae of the shoulder girdle and brachium. Topography.||2|
|27.||Muscles, fasciae, the topography of the antebrachium, and wrist.||2|
|28.||Muscles and fasciae of the pelvic girdle, thigh. Topography.||2|
|29.||Muscles and fasciae of the leg and foot. Topography.||2|
|30.||Control classes on “Myology”.|
|31.||The oral cavity. The tongue. Teeth. Glands of the oral cavity.||2|
|32.||The pharynx, structure, and topography. The esophagus, the structure, topography. Abdominal cavity. Roentgen anatomy and oesophagoscopy.||2|
|33.||The stomach, topography, and structure. Roentgen anatomy and gastroscopy. The small intestine the structure, topography.||2|
|34.||The large intestine, the structure, topography, roentgen anatomy of the intestine. The spleen.||2|
|35.||The liver, topography, structure. The pancreas: structure, topography.||2|
|36.||Peritoneum. Abdominal and peritoneal cavity. The topography of the anterior abdominal wall in the superior, medial, and inferior levels of the abdominal cavity.||2|
|37.||Control classes on splanchnology.||2|
|38.||The nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses. Larynx: the structure, topography.||2|
|39.||Trachea, bronchi, lungs: the structure, topography. Branchiogenic internal secretion glands.||2|
|40.||Pleura: visceral and parietal. The borders of lungs and pleura. Roentgen anatomy of lungs. Mediastinum.||2|
|41.||Kidneys, ureters. Suprarenal glands.||2|
|42.||Urinary bladder: the structure, topography. Female urethra. Testis, epididymis testis, ductus deferens: the structure, topography. Seminal vesicles.||2|
|43.||Spermatic cord, parts. Tunics of the testis. Prostate, bulbourethral glands. External male genital organs: penis, scrotum. Male urethra.||2|
|44.||Internal female genital organs: ovarium, adnexa ovarii, paraoophoron. Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina. The structure, topography.||2|
|45.||External female genital organs. The structure.||2|
|46.||Perineum: muscles and fasciae.||2|
|47.||Control classes on respiratory and urogenital systems.||2|
|48.||Heart: the structure of heart chambers. Features of atrial and ventricular myocardium structure. Conducting system of the heart.||2|
|49.||The topography of heart. Roentgen anatomy of the heart. Pericardium, topography. Arteries and veins of the heart.||2|
|50.||Vessels of lesser blood circulation. Ascending aorta. Aortic arch.||2|
|52.||Truncus brachiocephalicus. Common and external carotid artery.||2|
|53.||Internal carotid and subclavian artery.||2|
|54.||The axillary and brachial artery, branches.||2|
|55.||Radial, ulnar arteries, branches. Hand blood supply.||2|
|56.||Descending part of the aorta. Branches of the abdominal aorta.||2|
|57.||Common iliac artery. Internal and internal iliac arteries, branches. Blood supply of pelvic organs. Femoral artery.||2|
|58.||Popliteal artery. Arteries of the leg and foot.||2|
|59.||The system of superior cava vein. Sinuses of dura mater.||2|
|60.||The system of inferior cava and portal vein.||2|
|61.||Portocaval, cava-caval anastomoses. Fetal blood circulation.||2|
|63.||The lymphatic system of body regions.||2|
|64.||Control classes on angiology.||2|
|65.||The central nervous system. Spinal cord: development, topography, external and internal structure.The cerebrum. General review. Development of the cerebrum: brain vesicles and derivatives. Medulla oblongata. Pons.||2|
|66.||Cerebellum: internal and external structure. Isthmus rhomboideus. Ventriculus quartus.||2|
|67.||Rhomboid fossa (posterior part). Projection of the cranial nerves nuclei on the rhomboid fossa.||2|
|68.||Rhomboid fossa (anterior part). Midbrain: development, topography, internal and external structure.||2|
|69.||Thalamencephalon: its parts, internal structure. Ventriculus tertius. Neurogenic group of the endocrine glands.||2|
|70.||Telencephalon. Hemispheres of the brain, grooves, and gyri of the superior-lateral surface. Grooves and gyri of the medial and inferior surface.||2|
|71.||Rhinencephalon. Lateral ventricles. Basal nuclei and white matter of telencephalon. Localization of functions in the brain cortex.||2|
|72.||Membranes of the cerebrum and spinal cord. Blood supply of cerebrum and spinal cord, origin, and ways of outflow.||2|
|73.||Conducting pathways of the cerebrum and spinal cord. Reticular formation||2|
|74.||Control classes on: “The central nervous system”.||2|
|Peripheral nervous system|
|75.||Spinal nerves. Posterior branches. Anterior branches of thoracic spinal nerves. Cervical plexus.||2|
|76.||Brachial plexus: long and short branches.||2|
|77.||Lumbar plexus. Short branches of sacral plexus. Long branches of sacral plexus.||4|
|78.||Control classes on “Spinal nerves”.||2|
|79.||Cranial nerves: 12,11,10th pairs.||2|
|80.||Cranial nerves: 9,7th pairs. Gustatory analyzer.||2|
|81.||Cranial nerves: 5th pair.||2|
|82.||Cranial nerves: 1,2,3,4,6,8th pairs. Olfactory analyzer.||2|
|83.||Vegetative nervous system. Sympathetic part.||2|
|84.||Parasympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system. Innervations of internal organs. Interoceptive analyzer.||2|
|85.||Control classes on “Cranial nerves and vegetative nervous system”.||2|
|1.||The organ of vision: the bulb of the eye.||2|
|2.||Auxiliary apparatus of the eye. Visual analyzer.The organ of hearing: external and middle ear.||22|
|3.||Internal ear. Acoustic and statokinetic analyzers.||2|
|4.||Final classes on sense organs.||2|
Interim assessments (Controls) & Exam
- Interim assessment (Chapter-wise controls) : MCQs + situational tasks & Spotter with Viva (practical)
- Final exam: Spotter with Viva
Sample Control & Exam questions
1. Os palatinus;
2. Os sphenoidale;
3. Os zygomaticum;
A. Superior third of femur.
B. Body of femur.
C. Greater trochanter.
D. Neck of femur.
E. Inferior third of femur
- The score ranges from 5 to 1:
- 5 is “excellent” → Otlichno
- 4 is “good” → Khorosho
- 3 is “satisfactory” → Udovletvoritel’no
- 2 is “unsatisfactory” → Neudovletvoritel’no
- Prives, N. Lysenkov, V. Bushkovich “Human Anatomy” (Prives Anatomy) Mir Publishers Moscow (Volume 1 & Volume 2)
- Platzer,Fritsch, Helga, Kuehnel, Wolfgang, Kahle, Frotscher “Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy: in 3 volumes, Thieme publishers.
- M. R. Sapin, L. L. Kolesnikov, D. B. Nikitjuk ; ed. by M. R. Sapin “Textbook of human anatomy: for medical students” in 2 vol /2nd ed, New Wave Publ.
- Kolesnikov L, Nikitjuk D. B & Klochkova S. V. “Textbook of Human Anatomy” in in 2 vol, Geotar Publ.
- Анатомия человека : Сапин М. Р., Билич Г. Л. учебник в 3 т
- Р.Д.Синельников, Я. P. Синельников “Атлас анатомии человека”
- Сапин М.Р., Никитюк Д.Б., Швецов Э.В. Атлас нормальной анатомии человека, 2-х томах. М.: «МЕДПресс-информ», 2006.
- Анатомия человека: атлас. Билич Г.Л., Крыжановский В.А
- Анатомия человека: учебник : в 2 т. / С. С. Михайлов, А. В. Чукбар, А. Г. Цыбулькин; под ред. Л. Л. Колесникова.
- Traditional Lecture & Class in Systemic Anatomy (Russian language):
- Practical exam in Systemic Anatomy (Russian language): spotters & skills in the appropriate lab setup