Topographic Anatomy Syllabus in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe
- Human Anatomy AKA Normal anatomy is taught in Russia, other CIS & Eastern Europe in the traditional way where the syllabus is divided into Systemic Anatomy to be taught in the 1st & 2nd academic years however Regional Anatomy is taught in the 3rd year with operative surgery & clinico-surgical applications.
- Traditional teaching methodology of anatomy in Russia, other CIS & Eastern Europe is different from the English way of teaching anatomy however all the components of teaching are included within the syllabus of both systemic & regional anatomy distributed in different academic years.
- The Russian, other CIS & Eastern European system believes that basics of Anatomy should be taught as systemic anatomy in the first year then once students are exposed to pathology & clinical subjects in 2nd to 3rd years, regional anatomy with clinico-surgical applications in order to increase the depth of understanding & implications.
FAQs about Anatomy in Russia vs India
- Why do Russian/CIS medical schools emphasize so much on Anatomy? Because Germans & Russians were the pioneers in Anatomy & developed traditional schools of Anatomy earlier than many other countries, therefore, the Russian medical schools consider Anatomy to be their pride.
- What is systemic anatomy? Systemic anatomy focuses on the anatomy of different organ systems from basic supporting structures bones (osteology) to the advanced nervous system.
- When do they teach systemic anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? during the first 3 semesters.
- Which countries teach systemic anatomy currently? Many European countries especially Eastern Europe, All CIS, South American countries & China.
- What is taught under systemic Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Anatomy is taught system by system with relevant Embryology (General embryology is covered with Histology) + Ontogenesis + Anthropology & Radioanatomy.
- Do they teach systemic anatomy in India? No, they teach only regional anatomy.
- Is Anatomy taught as a separate subject from Histology & embryology in India? No, Anatomy is taught as a single subject including histology, embryology & genetics during the first professional year in India however systemic anatomy is taught as a separate subject from histology, embryology & genetics.
- Does the Russian/CIS curriculum have regional Anatomy? Yes, it’s called Topographic anatomy (Topography=distribution of structures in the region) taught together with Operative surgery.
- When do they teach Regional Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? during the 3rd-4th years in Russia.
- What are the differences in the teaching methodology of Anatomy in Russia/CIS vs India?
- India: Follows the most effective & traditional way of teaching Anatomy through live “dissection” however prosected models are available for learning (students should complete full-body dissection by the end of the Anatomy course).
- Russia: Prosected or Plastinated cadavers are used for initial teaching due to the relative scarcity of the cadavers however partial dissection sessions are conducted intermittently (Some universities do not conduct the dissections though).
- What is the most common misconception about Anatomy in Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Many people believe that only systemic anatomy is taught in Russia & there is no regional anatomy or dissections.
- Why do many people have such a misconception?
- Many people even Medicos in India are unaware of the Russia, Other CIS & Eastern European curricula & syllabi.
- Consultants who recruit students to Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe misguide people by saying there is no regional anatomy in Russia.
- Is there a drastic difference between the depth of content taught/tested in India & Russia, Other CIS & Eastern Europe? Yes, the depth of the contents taught in India is more than in Russia, especially for the English medium.
Systemic Anatomy syllabus
- Subject: Topographic anatomy & operative surgery
- Semesters: 6-7 or 7-8
- Tentative hours of lectures: 50 hours
- Tentative hours of practicals: 200 hours
- Exam: after 2 semesters
- Important points to be emphasized: There are differences in the distribution or sequence of the chapters/topics, teaching hours, credits, exams & reference textbooks between the universities
Brief description of the course
- Topographic anatomy and operative surgery are based on the goals of the educational-professional program of graduates prepared for a higher medical school and are determined by the content of that system knowledge and skills that a specialist should acquire.
- The foundation for the student’s study of surgery, traumatology, surgical dentistry, neurosurgery, anesthesiology, and intensive care, and other educational disciplines where surgical methods of treatment are used.
- Enables students to know the structure, topography, and syntropy of the human body parts, also to demonstrate possession of the technique of basic surgical interventions performance on experimental animals and human
- Essence, the fundamental properties of the layered structure of the human body;
- Features of anatomy structure of the head;
- Features of topographical anatomy of the neck;
- Features of topographical anatomy of the chest;
- Concept of norm, variants, anomalies;
- Concept of individual variability;
- Concept about the constitution of the chest;
- Features of topographical anatomy of abdomen;
- Types of body structure;
- Features of topographic anatomy of the lumbar region and retroperitoneal space;
- Features of topographic anatomy of the pelvis;
- Features of topographic anatomy of the upper limb;
- Features of topographic anatomy of the lower limb.
- To confirm situational tasks from the main parts of discipline;
- To determine the layered structure features of parts of the head;
- To know how to perform primary surgical treatment of wounds of the skull;
- To demonstrate on a phantom the methods of anesthesia on maxilla and mandible;
- To differentiate the external and internal carotid arteries in the triangle;
- To define in pirogov`s triangle the lingual artery;
- To show on dry preparations the structure of the wall of the chest;
- To determine the structure and function of organs of the chest;
- To determine localization and formation of cava veins;
- To determine the puncture of the pleural cavity;
- To determine the structure and function of the abdominal cavity organs;
- To differentiate the topography of peripheral nerves and vessels of the trunk;
- To demonstrate on wet preparations the performance of intestinal sutures;
- To demonstrate on wet preparations the performance of liver sutures;
- To demonstrate paranephric block performance on a phantom;
- To determine the anatomical areas of lymphatic ducts termination;
- To determine the structure and function of the pelvic organs;
- To demonstrate catheterization of urinary bladder on the phantom;
- To demonstrate on dry preparations bones and muscles of the pelvis;
- To determine the structure and function of the upper limb;
- To show on dry preparations the structure of the upper extremity joints;
- To demonstrate venipuncture on the upper limb;
- To demonstrate on the wet preparations the lower limb layered structure;
- To analyze the features of the veins topography;
- To analyze the formation and clinical significance of venous anastomoses.
- Systemic Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology & Pathology
- Lectures: traditional & problematic.
- Active learning methods: command-based learning (TBL Team-based Learning)
- Traditional methods: work with anatomical specimens, models and tablets, oral questioning, the solution of test tasks and case studies, in-depth study of selected issues workshops, consultations with the lecturer on all issues,
- Independent work: with training and additional literature, preparation of tests, presentations, reports, and projects.
Lectures & Practical classes: topics & number of hours
|1. Introduction to topographical anatomy and operative surgery. Classification of anesthesia; types of operative procedures. Principles of the operations. Surgical instruments.||2||2||5|
|2. Dissection and connection of the tissues. Primary surgical technique.||–||2|
|3. Topographical anatomy and operative surgery of the cerebral-cranial part of the head. . Topographical anatomy and operative surgery of cranial cavity.||2||2||5|
|4. Topography of face. Orbit and nose.Operative treatment of purulent processes of the face.||2||2||5|
|5. Topography of organs of the neck (pharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, thyroid gland). Operative procedures on the organs of the neck. Tracheostomy. External and common carotid artery exposure and ligature.||2||2||5|
|6. Topographical anatomy and operative surgery of thoracic wall, breast, pleura, and lungs.||2||2||5|
|7. Topographical anatomy and operative surgery of anterior and posterior mediastinum.||2||2||–|
|8. Topography and operative surgery of anterior-lateral abdominal wall. Operative treatment of anterior abdominal wall hernias.||2||2||5|
|9. Topography of peritoneum and abdominal cavity superior floor organs. Operations on stomach (gastrostomy, stomach resections, gastroenterostomy). Operations on the liver, gall bladder, biliary tract, pancreas.||2||2||5|
|10. Topography of peritoneum and abdominal cavity inferior floor organs. Operations on the abdominal cavity organs: intestinal sutures and resections. Appendectomy, operations on the large intestine.||2||2||5|
|11. Topography and operative surgery of the lumbar region and retroperitoneal space. Basics of transplantology.||2||2||5|
|12. Topography and operative surgery of pelvic walls, floors, nerves, and vessels, cellular tissue spaces. Topography and operative surgery of pelvic organs.||2||2||–|
|13. Topography and operative surgery of the shoulder, arm, cubital fossa, forearm, and hand. Topography and operative surgery of gluteal area, femoral area, popliteal fossa, knee joint, crural area, and foot.||2||2||–|
|14. Operations on the upper and lower extremities: vessel ligature; vessel suturing; operative treatment of Canaris and tendosynovitis; venesection, vein puncture; intramuscular injections; treatment of abscesses. Principles of operative procedures on bones (amputation, exarticulation, joint resection).||2||2||5|
Interim assessments (Controls) & Exam
- Interim assessment (Chapter-wise controls) : MCQs + situational tasks & Spotter with Viva (practical)
- Final exam: Spotter with Viva
How to study anatomy to score 5+ with the least effort?
Sample Control & Exam questions
Grab the MCQs, Viva & Tasks with answers to score 5+ ↓
- The score ranges from 5 to 1:
- 5 is “excellent” → Otlichno
- 4 is “good” → Khorosho
- 3 is “satisfactory” → Udovletvoritel’no
- 2 is “unsatisfactory” → Neudovletvoritel’no
Join the “Otlichnik club” to get your “Red Diploma”↓
- Островерхов Г.В., Бомаш Ю.М., Лубоцкий Д.Н. Оперативная хирургия и топографическая анатомия, Учебник для медвузов, 2005.
- А. В. Николаев, Топографическая анатомия и оперативная хирургия: учебник, 2-х том. 2009.
- С. В. Чемезов., И. И. Каган, Топографическая анатомия и оперативная хирургия: учебник, 2009.
- Chummy S. Sinnatamby “Last’s Anatomy Regional & Applied”.
- Anne M. R. Agur, Ming J. Lee M. D. “Grants anatomy” – 10th Ed.
- Traditional Lecture in Topographic anatomy & operative surgery (Russian Language):
- practical/class in Topographic anatomy & operative surgery (Russian Language):